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manual
Curso Bsico de HTML
Introduccin a la programacin de pginas Web
Publicado por JL Fecha: 2006-12-02 01:20:00 Idioma: Espaol Tipo de documento: manual
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Curso de HTML Bsico

Curso bsico de HTML

Gua para principiantes

(Curso para introducir a alguien a la programacin de pginas web)



CARACTERES ESPECIALES

Existen ciertas exigencias de HTML respecto al uso de caracteres especiales, denominacin que incluye a las vocales acentuadas y a la letra ee. Existen tambin ciertas limitaciones relativas al uso de ciertos smbolos que significan algo en HTML, como el de menor que (<) o el signo ingls de and (llamado ampersand: &).

Trataremos primero el caso ms sencillo. Existe una razn evidente que impide que podamos escribir ciertos smbolos directamente en un texto HTML, como por ejemplo el <: dichos smbolos tienen un significado en HTML, y es necesario diferenciar claramente cundo poseen ese significado y cundo queremos que aparezcan literalmente en el documento final. Por ejemplo, como ya sabemos, < indica el comienzo de una directiva, y, por ello, si queremos que aparezca en el texto como tal tendremos que dar un rodeo escribiendo algo que no de lugar a confusin, en este caso &lt;. Los smbolos afectados por esta limitacin, y la forma de escribirlos, se detallan a continuacin:

  • < (Menor que): &lt;
  • > (Mayor que): &gt;
  • & (smbolo de and, o ampersand): &amp;
  • " (comillas dobles): &quot;

Es decir, que para escribir <"> en nuestro texto HTML original debemos poner &lt;&quot;&gt;.

El otro caso especial se da cuando en un texto HTML se quiere escribir una ee, por ejemplo. Existen dos formas de hacerlo. La primera, que es a la que obliga el estndar de HTML, consiste en utilizar entidades, es decir, palabrejas como las que antes se presentaron para escribir ciertos smbolos. Las entidades comienzan siempre con el smbolo &, y terminan con un punto y coma (;). Entre medias va un identificador del carcter que queremos que se escriba. Las entidades necesarias en nuestro idioma son:

  • : &aacute;
  • : &eacute;
  • : &iacute;
  • : &oacute;
  • : &uacute;
  • : &Aacute;
  • : &Eacute;
  • : &Iacute;
  • : &Oacute;
  • : &Uacute;
  • : &uuml;
  • : &Uuml;
  • : &ntilde;
  • : &Ntilde;
  • : &#191;
  • : &#161;

Como puede verse, las vocales acentuadas se identifican aadiendo el sufijo acute a la vocal sin acentuar (puesto que se trata de un acento agudo). Para la u con diresis y la ee se usan uml tras una u y tilde detrs una ene, respectivamente. La equivalencia de los signos de abrir interrogacin y exclamacin es algo ms oscura: a falta de una denominacin ms evidente, tenemos que usar el valor numrico de dichos caracteres en el cdigo estndar latin1 (ISO-8859-1). Esto se puede hacer con cualquier otro carcter del cdigo latin1, que es el cdigo de caracteres bsico en HTML, escribiendo &#numero;.

La segunda manera, que sin duda es ms cmoda, consiste en no preocuparse por esta limitacin y escribir literalmente los caracteres afectados. A pesar de que este mtodo suele funcionar en las conexiones WWW directas (porque el protocolo HTTP, que transporta el HTML por los vericuetos de Internet, requiere un canal de 8 bits), no tiene por qu funcionar bien cuando los documentos HTML se envan por correo electrnico, por ejemplo. Por tanto, y a pesar de los inconvenientes, es absolutamente recomendable respetar la norma especificada en HTML.


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